Search
|
Est
Back to top

The position and function of locative demonstrative adverbs in Estonian: a case study on motion clauses

Keywords: locative demonstrative adverbs, reference, spatial semantics, syntax, motion, Estonian

 

Demonstratives are extremely important in all languages due to them having various pragmatic, semantic, and syntactic functions. For this reason, they are frequently studied and our current knowledge of demonstratives is also comparatively rich. However, research into demonstratives tends to concentrate mainly on demonstrative pronouns, while demonstrative adverbs have received much less attention. The same applies to Estonian linguistic tradition in that demonstrative pronouns are much more exhaustively investigated than demonstrative adverbs. The current study aims to fill this gap by analysing the use and function of locative demonstrative adverbs in Estonian. The analysis of locative demonstrative adverbs is based on 229 clauses that represent the semantic domain of actual motion (e.g., ta jooksis seal ‘(s)he was running there’). The analysis is primarily qualitative and focuses on the placement of demonstrative adverbs with respect to the other spatial expressions and the predicate in motion clauses. It also describes the syntactic, pragmatic, and semantic functions that demonstrative adverbs may have in discourse. The analysis reveals many patterns for Estonian locative demonstrative adverbs. Firstly, a demonstrative adverb in Estonian may be used as a single non-verb spatial expression in a clause (e.g., ta jooksis seal ‘(s)he was running there’), but it can also be used in combination with other spatial expressions (e.g., ta jooksis seal metsas ‘lit. (s)he was running there in the forest’). Secondly, demonstrative adverbs tend to occur immediately before the spatial expression (see above), but they can also occur after the spatial expression (e.g., ta jooksis metsas seal ‘(s)he was running in the forest there’). Thirdly, they can be separated from the spatial expression by other syntactic units (e.g., seal ta jooksis metsas ‘there (s)he was running in the forest’). Furthermore, when a demonstrative adverb and spatial expression are adjacent, they tend to refer to the same spatial region (e.g., ta jooksis sinna [GOAL] majja [GOAL] lit. ‘(s)he ran thereinto the house’). When they are not adjacent, they tend to refer to different spatial regions (e.g., seal [LOCATION] ta jooksis majja [GOAL] ‘there (s)he ran into the house’). As for their syntactic functions, locative demonstrative adverbs can be described as locative adverbials, articles, or apposition-like units. They also help to create textual coherence and they clearly stand for many referential tasks, while also setting the spatial background of a depicted event. As such, the analysis of Estonian locative demonstrative adverbs indicates their rich and intricate structural and functional variability.

 

Piia Taremaa (b. 1982), PhD, University of Tartu, Research Fellow in General Linguistics, piia.taremaa@ut.ee

 

References

C l a r k, Herbert H., S c h r e u d e r, Robert, B u t t r i c k, Samuel 1983. Common ground at the understanding of demonstrative reference. − Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behaviour, kd 22, nr 2, lk 245–258.

C o v e n t r y, Kenny R., V a l d é s, Berenice, C a s t i l l o, Alejandro, G u i j a r r o-F u e n t e s, Pedro 2008. Language within your reach: Near–far perceptual space and spatial demonstratives. – Cognition, kd 108, nr 3, lk 889–895.

D i e s s e l, Holger 1999a. Demonstratives: Form, Function and Grammaticalization. (Typological Studies in Language 42.) Amsterdam–Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.

D i e s s e l, Holger 1999b. The morphosyntax of demonstratives in synchrony and diachrony. − Linguistic Typology, kd 3, nr 1, lk 1–50.

D i e s s e l, Holger 2006. Demonstratives, joint attention, and the emergence of grammar. − Cognitive Linguistics, kd 17, nr 4, lk 463–489.

D i x o n, Robert M. W. 2003. Demonstratives: A cross-linguistic typology. − Studies in Language, kd 27, nr 1, lk 61–112.

EES = Eesti etümoloogiasõnaraamat. Peatoim Iris Metsmägi. Koost I. Metsmägi, Meeli Sedrik, Sven-Erik Soosaar. Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2012.

EKG I = Mati Erelt, Tiiu Erelt, Henn Saari, Ülle Viks 1995. Eesti keele grammatika I. Morfoloogia. Sõnamoodustus.Tallinn: Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Eesti Keele Instituut.

EKG II = Mati Erelt, Tiiu Erelt, Henn Saari, Ülle Viks 1993. Eesti keele grammatika II. Süntaks. Lisa: kiri. Tallinn: Eesti Teaduste Akadeemia Keele ja Kirjanduse Instituut.

E n f i e l d, Nick J. 2003. Demonstratives in space and interaction: Data from Lao speakers and implications for semantic analysis. – Language, kd 79, nr 1, lk 82–117.

E r e l t, Mati 2000. On the pro-forms in Estonian. − Estonian: Typological Studies IV. (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli toimetised 14.) Toim M. Erelt. Tartu: Tartu Ülikool, lk 7−18.

E r e l t, Mati 2017a. Sissejuhatus süntaksisse. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim M. Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 53–89.

E r e l t, Mati 2017b. Öeldis. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim M. Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 93–239.

E r e l t, Mati 2017c. Liitlause. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim M. Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 647–755.

E s l o n, Pille 2014. Adverbi sisaldavate struktuuride tekstifunktsioonidest eesti ilukirjandus- ja õppijakeeles. − Lähivõrdlusi. Lähivertailuja, nr 24, lk 15–46.

F i l l m o r e, Charles J. 1975. Santa Cruz lectures on deixis, 1971. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

F i l l m o r e, Charles J. 1997. Lectures on Deixis. Stanford, California: CSLI Publications.

G u n d e l, Jeanette K., H e d b e r g, Nancy, Z a c h a r s k i, Ron 1993. Cognitive status and the form of referring expressions in discourse. – Language, kd 69, nr 2, lk 274–307.

H a l l i d a y, M. A. K., H a s a n, Ruqaiya 2013. Cohesion in English. (English Language Series.) London–New York: Routledge.

H i n t, Helen, R e i l e, Maria, P a j u s a l u, Renate 2013. Kontekst ja viitamine: argivestlused, legod ja narratiivid. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 4, nr 1, lk 161–183.

K a i s e r, Elsi, V i h m a n, Virve 2010. On the referential properties of Estonian pronouns and demonstratives. – Memory, Mind and Language. Toim Hans Götzsche. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, lk 193−205.

K a r m i l o f f-S m i t h, Annette 1979. A functional approach to child language: A study of determiners and reference. (Cambridge Studies in Linguistics 24.) Cambridge–New York–Melbourne: Cambridge University Press.

K e e v a l l i k, Leelo 2011. Pro-forms as projective devices in interaction. − Discourse Processes, kd 48, nr 6, lk 404–431.

K e m m e r e r, David 2006. The semantics of space: Integrating linguistic typology and cognitive neuroscience. – Neuropsychologia, kd 44, nr 9, lk 1607–1621.

L a u r y, Ritva 1997. Demonstratives in interaction: The emergence of a definite article in Finnish. (Studies in Discourse and Grammar 7.) Amsterdam–Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

L e u, Thomas 2008. The Internal Syntax of Determiners. New York University.

L e v i n s o n, Stephen C. 1983. Pragmatics. (Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics.) Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

L i n d s t r ö m, Liina 2005. Finiitverbi asend lauses. Sõnajärg ja seda mõjutavad tegurid suulises eesti keeles. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis 12.) Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

L i n d s t r ö m, Liina 2017. Lause infostruktuur ja sõnajärg. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 537−565.

L y o n s, John 1977. SemanticsKd I–II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 1997. Is there an article in (spoken) Estonian? – Estonian Typological Studies II. (Tartu Ülikooli eesti keele õppetooli toimetised 8.) Toim Mati Erelt. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 146–177.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 1999. Deiktikud eesti keeles. (Dissertationes philologiae estonicae Universitatis Tartuensis 8.) Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2004. Tuumverbid ja deiksis. – Tuumsõnade semantikat ja pragmaatikat. (Tartu Ülikooli üldkeeleteaduse õppetooli toimetised 5.) Toim R. Pajusalu, Ilona Tragel, Ann Veismann, Maigi Vija. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 53–61.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2005. Anaphoric pronouns in Spoken Estonian: crossing the paradigms. – Minimal Reference – the Use of Pronouns in Finnish and Estonian Discourse. (Studia Fennica Linguistica.) Toim Ritva Laury. Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, lk 107−134.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2015. Võro demonstratives: changing or disappearing? – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 6, nr 2, lk 167–190.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2017a. Nimisõnafraas. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 379−404.

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2017b. Viiteseosed. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim Mati Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 566–589.

P e e t e r s, David, H a g o o r t, Peter, Ö z y ü r e k, Aslı 2015. Electrophysiological evidence for the role of shared space in online comprehension of spatial demonstratives. – Cognition, kd 136, lk 64–84.

R e i l e, Maria 2015. Space and demonstratives: an experiment with Estonian exophoric demonstratives. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 6, nr 2, lk 137–165.

R e i l e, Maria 2016. Distance, visual salience, and contrast expressed through different demonstrative systems: An experimental study in Estonian. – SKY Journal of Linguistics, kd 29, lk 63–94.

S a h k a i, Heete 1999. Eesti verbifraasi sõnajärg. – Keel ja Kirjandus, nr 1, lk 24–32.

S a h k a i, Heete 2003. Demonstrative doubling in Spoken Estonian. – Trames, kd 7, nr 2, lk 120−144.

S a h k a i, Heete 2016. Demonstratives and information structure in spoken Estonian. – Information structuring of spoken language from a cross-linguistic perspective. Toim M. M. Jocelyne Fernandez-Vest, Robert D. Van Valin. Berlin–Boston: De Gruyter Mouton, lk 211–235.

S o o d l a, Piret, K i r s i p u u, Helen, P a j u s a l u, Renate 2012. Referentsiaalsed noomenifraasid laste narratiivides. – Eesti Rakenduslingvistika Ühingu aastaraamat, kd 8, lk 91–107.

S t e v e n s, James, Z h a n g, Yang 2013. Relative distance and gaze in the use of entity-referring spatial demonstratives: An event-related potential study. – Journal of Neurolinguistics, kd 26, nr 1, lk 31–45.

T a e l, Kaja 1988. Infostruktuur ja lauseliigendus. – Keel ja Kirjandus, nr 3, lk 133–143.

T a m m e k ä n d, Liina 2015. Demonstratives in Võro and Estonian oral narratives. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 6, nr 2, lk 191–216.

T a r e m a a, Piia 2017. Attention meets language: a corpus study on the expression of motion in Estonian. (Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis 29.) Tartu: University of Tartu Press.

T a u l i, Valter 1973. Standard Estonian grammar. Part I: phonology, morphology, word-formation. (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Uralica et Altaica Upsaliensia 8.) Uppsala: Almqvist & Wiksell.

T a u l i, Valter 1983. Standard Estonian grammar. Part II: syntax. (Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Uralica et Altaica Upsaliensia 14.) Uppsala: Borgströms Tryckeri AB.

V e i s m a n n, Ann, E r e l t, Mati 2017. Määrsõnafraas. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim M. Erelt, Helle Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 416–429.

V e i s m a n n, Ann, E r e l t, Mati, M e t s l a n g, Helle 2017. Määrus. – Eesti keele süntaks. (Eesti keele varamu III.) Toim M. Erelt, H. Metslang. Tartu: Tartu Ülikooli Kirjastus, lk 326–375.

V e s k i, Asta 1982. Eesti keele grammatika II. Määrsõna. Tartu: Tartu Riiklik Ülikool.

V i j a, Maigi 2007. Pronoomenid lapsekeeles: mõnda mina ja sina omandamisest. – Eesti Rakenduslingvistika Ühingu aastaraamat, kd 3, lk 373–384.