Search
|
Est
Back to top

List task and naming task as psycholinguistic methods

Advantages and pitfalls

Keywords: research methods, empirical methods, data collection, semantics, colour terms, spatial relations

 

Both the list task (elicitation task or listing task) and the naming task are widely used in psycholinguistics, cognitive linguistics and anthropological linguistics as well as in social sciences and clinical testing for Alzheimer’s Syndrome. Both methods are easily adaptable to linguistic and other phenomena, applicable without complicated research settings and effortless for researchers to use on research site. Due to the ease they can be used on large numbers of participants who agree to contribute their knowledge voluntarily. Empirical methods can give different results than introspection or corpus analysis. However, both list task and naming tasks have advantages and disadvantages which are not immediately obvious. One of the advantages is that list and naming tasks can be approached by bottom-up analysis. There are disadvantages as well. Listing cannot be performed if a language lacks an umbrella term for a particular semantic field, e.g. smell, where ’smell’ itself belongs to the basic-word inventory of the smell domain. In these instances, researchers need to be creative or alternatively abandon the list task altogether, as is known from the literature for languages which do not possess a word for ’colour’. Conversely, with naming tasks, researchers need to be careful when selecting appropriate stimuli which might be especially challenging for large-scale typological studies where concepts might differ from language to language. This article contains multiple examples from Estonian and other languages which refer, on the one hand, to language-specific untranslatable phenomena, and on the other hand, bring out those cases where participants have misunderstood instructions or misinterpreted the stimuli due to their complexity.

 

Mari Uusküla (b. 1980 Bogatkin), PhD, Tallinn University, Associate Professor of ­Linguistics and Translation Theory, muuskyla@tlu.ee

 

References

A i t c h i s o n, Jean 1994. Words in the Mind: An Introduction to Mental Lexicon. Oxford: Blackwell.

A l o i a, Mark S., G o u r o v i t c h, Monica L., W e i n b e r g e r, Daniel R., G o l d b e r g, Terry E. 1996. An investigation of semantic space in patients with schizophrenia. – Journal of International Neuropsychological Society, kd 2, nr 4, lk 267–273.

A n i s h c h a n k a, Alena, V e r h e y e n, Steven 2017. Experimental and corpus-­derived evidence for color term basicness: bridging the disciplinary divide. – The 14th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference: Linguistic Diversity and Cognitive Linguistics (ICLC14), Tartu, 10–14 July, 2017. Book of Abstracts.

B e r l i n, Brent, K a y, Paul 1969. Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution. Berkeley: University of California Press.

B i g g a m, Carole 2012. The Semantics of Colour. A Historical Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

B i m l e r, David, K i r k l a n d, John, U u s k ü l a, Mari 2015. Applying points-of-view analysis to individual variations in colour sorting data. – Journal of Cognition and Culture, kd 15, nr 1–2, lk 87–108.

B i m l e r, David, U u s k ü l a, Mari 2017. A Similarity-based cross-linguistic comparison of basicness and demarcation of „blue” terms. – Color Research and Application, kd 42, nr 3, lk 362–377.

B i m l e r, David, U u s k ü l a, Mari 2018. Individual variations in color-concept space replicate across languages. – Journal of the Optical Society of America, kd A 35, nr 4, lk B184–B191.

B o g a t k i n-U u s k ü l a, Mari, S u t r o p, Urmas 2005. Kas ungari keeles on kaks punase värvi põhinime piros ja vörös? – Emakeele Seltsi aastaraamat 50 (2004). Tallinn: Emakeele Selts, lk 93–110.

B r i n d l e, Jonathan 2016. Color basicness in Chakali. – Colour Language and Colour Categorization. Toim Geda Paulsen, Mari Uusküla, J. Brindle. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars, lk 87–114.

C h a n, Agnes S., B u t t e r s, Nelson, S a l m o n David P. 1997. The deterioration of semantic networks in patients with Alzheimer’s disease: A cross-sectional study. – Neuro­psychologia, kd 35, nr 3, lk 241–248.

C o n k l i n, Harold 1955. Hanonoo color categories. – Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, kd 11, lk 441–446.

D a v i e s, Ian R. L. 2011. A study of colour grouping in three languages: A test of the linguistic relativity hypothesis. – British Journal of Psychology, kd 98, nr 3, lk 433–452.

D a v i e s, Ian, C o r b e t t, Greville 1995. Linguistic and behavioural measures for ranking basic colour terms. – Studies in Language, kd 19, nr 2, lk 301–357.

D a v i e s, Ian, M a c D e r m i d, Catriona, C o r b e t t, Greville, M c G u r k, Harry, T e r r e t t, David, T e r r e t t, Tiny, S o w d e n, Paul 1992. Color terms in Setswana: A Linguistic and perceptual approach. – Linguistics, kd 30, nr 6, lk 1065–1103.

E e s s a l u, Martin 2012. The categorization of the Estonian domain of „musical instruments” – listeners vs musicians and the comparison of basic levels. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 3, nr 1, lk 227–241.

E e s s a l u, Martin 2013. Elusloodus eesti keeles: prototüüpsus ning abstraktse taksonoomia konstrueerimine. Magistritöö. Tartu Ülikool.

E e s s a l u, Martin, U u s k ü l a, Mari 2013. The special case of beige: a cross-­linguistic study. – Colour and Colorimetry: Multidisciplinary Contributions, kd IX B. Toim Maurizio Rossi. Milano: Maggioli Editore, lk 168–176.

EKAS = Eesti keele assotsiatsioonisõnastik. http://www.eki.ee/~ene/kodanikuteadus/assotsiatsioonid.html (13. II 2018).

E n f i e l d, Nick, M a j i d, Asifa, van S t a d e n, Miriam 2006. Cross-linguistic categorization of the body: Introduction. – Language Sciences, kd 28, nr 2–3, lk 137–147.

H o l l m a n, Liivi 2011. Põhivärvinimed eesti viipekeeles. – Värvinimede raamat. Toim Mari Uusküla, Urmas Sutrop. Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, lk 89–113.

K l a v a n, Jane, V e i s m a n n, Ann, J ü r i n e, Anni 2013. Katselised meetodid tähenduse uurimisel. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 4, nr 1, lk 17–34.

K l e m m, Jürgen 2013. Tänapäeva eesti keele sugulussõnavara. Magistritöö. Tartu Ülikool. http://hdl.handle.net/10062/30894

M a j i d, Asifa, J o r d a n, Fiona, D u n n, Michael 2011. Evolution of Semantic Systems Procedures Manual. Developed for the EoSS Project. Nijmegen: Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.

M a j i d, Asifa, J o r d a n, Fiona, D u n n, Michael 2015. Semantic systems in closely related languages. – Language Sciences, kd 49, lk 1–18.

M ä n n i k, Anna-Liisa 2016. Sõnade assotsiatsioonid eesti ja inglise keeles. Magistritöö. Tallinna Ülikool.

O j a, Vilja 2007. Colour naming in Estonian and cognate languages. – Anthropology of Color: Interdisciplinary Multilevel Modeling. Toim Robert E. MacLaury, Galina Paramei, Don Dedrick. Amsterdam–Philadelphia: John Benjamins, lk 189–209. 

P a j u s a l u, Renate 2009. Sõna ja tähendus. Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus.

P r a d o-L e ó n, Lilia Roselia, R o s a l e s-C i n c o, Rosa Amelia 2011. Effects of lightness and saturation on color associations in the Mexican population. – New Directions in Colour Studies. Toim Carole P. Biggam, Carole Hough, Christian Kay, David R. Simmons. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, lk 389–394.

R o b e r s o n, Debi, I a n R. L. Davies, C o r b e t t, Greville G., V a n d e r v y v e r, Marieta 2005. Free-sorting of colors across cultures: Are there universal grounds for grouping? – Journal of Cognition and Culture, kd 5, nr 3, lk 349–386.

R ä t s e p, Kaidi 2011. Preliminary research on Turkish basic colour terms with an emphasis on blue. – New Directions in Colour Studies. Toim Carole P. Biggam, Carole Hough, Christian Kay, David R. Simmons. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, lk 133–145.

S m i t h, J. Jerome 1993. Using ANTHROPAC 3.5 and a spreadsheet to compute a free-list salience index. – Cultural Anthropology Methods Journals, kd 5, nr 3, lk 1–3.

S u t r o p, Urmas 1995. Eesti keele põhivärvinimed. – Keel ja Kirjandus, nr 12, lk 797–808.

S u t r o p, Urmas 1998. Basic temperature terms and subjective temperature scale. – Lexicology, kd 4, nr 1, lk 60–104.

S u t r o p, Urmas 2001. List task and a cognitive salience index. – Field Methods, kd 13, nr 3, lk 263–276.

S u t r o p, Urmas 2002. The Vocabulary of Sense Perception in Estonian: Structure and History. (Opuscula Fenno-Ugrica Gottingensia 8.) Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

S u t r o p, Urmas 2011. Loetelukatse ja kognitiivse esiletuleku indeks. Põhivärvinimed eesti viipekeeles. – Värvinimede raamat. Toim Mari Uusküla, U. Sutrop. Tallinn: Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, lk 51–61.

Z u r b u c h e n, Karin 2017. Eesti ja saksa värvi- ja lõhnasõnade võrdlev analüüs empiirilise uurimuse varal. Magistritöö. Tallinna Ülikool.

T a m m e r t, Marje 2017. Värviteooria. Tallinn: Aimwell.

T i i t s o n, Sandra 2017. Tõlkijate ja mittetõlkijate kategooriate võrdlus nelja semantilise välja põhjal. Magistritöö. Tallinna Ülikool.

U u s k ü l a, Mari 2006. Distribution of colour terms in Ostwald’s colour space in Estonian, Finnish, Hungarian, Russian and English. – Trames, kd 10, nr 2, lk 152–168.

U u s k ü l a, Mari 2007. The basic colour terms of Finnish. – SKY Journal of Linguistics, kd 20, lk 367–397.

U u s k ü l a, Mari 2011. Terms for red in Central Europe: An areal phenomenon in Hungarian and Czech. – New Directions in Colour Studies. Toim Carole P. Biggam, Carole Hough, Christian Kay, David R. Simmons. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, lk 147–160.

U u s k ü l a, Mari, B i m l e r, David 2016. From listing data to semantic maps: Cross-linguistic commonalities in the cognitive representation of colour. – Folklore: The Electronic Journal of Folklore, kd 64, lk 57–90.

U u s k ü l a, Mari, E e s s a l u, Martin 2018. Glossy black is not actually ‘black’: Evidence from psycholinguistic colour naming studies in 14 European languages. – Cultura e Scienza del Colore / Color Culture and Science Journal, kd 9, lk 39–44.

U u s k ü l a, Mari, H o l l m a n, Liivi, S u t r o p, Urmas 2012. Basic colour terms in five Finno-Ugric languages and Estonian Sign Language: A comparative study. – ESUKA/JEFUL, kd 3, nr 1, lk 47–86.

U u s k ü l a, Mari, S u t r o p, Urmas 2007. Preliminary study of basic colour terms in modern Hungarian. – Linguistica Uralica, nr 2, lk 102–123.

U u s k ü l a, Mari, S u t r o p, Urmas (toim) 2011. Värvinimede raamat. Tallinn: EKSA.

V a i n i k, Ene 2002. Emotions, emotion terms and emotion concepts in an Estonian folk model. – Trames, kd 6, nr 4, lk 322–341.

V a i n i k, Ene 2006. Intracultural variations of semantic and episodic emotion knowledge in Estonian. – Trames, kd 6, nr 1, lk 169–189.

V e i s m a n n, Ann 2008. Eesti kaassõnade tähenduste kirjeldamise probleemidest. – Keel ja Kirjandus, nr 5, lk 335–352.

V e j d e m o, Susanne 2017. Triangulating Perspectives on Lexical Replacement: From Predictive Statistical Models to Descriptive Color Linguistics. Stockholm: Stockholm University.

W e l l e r, Susan, R o m n e y, Kimball 1988. Systematic Data Collection. California: Sage.